Federal Law: The most essential source of United States law is of course the Constitution of the United States of America. Statutes (the United States Code) and Regulations (the Code of Federal Regulations) may be found at the following links and also in Lexis Advance, WestLaw and Bloomberg Law. Print versions of these resources are generally available in the Library’s collection; consult the Library’s Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) or a Reference Librarian:
The Constitution of the United States of America.
Federal Cases: Depending upon the forum and the claims involved in the particular case, a researcher may need to find State and/or Federal cases to fully research their issue.
Court websites (selected Federal courts):
Court websites for other jurisdictions in the United States are available online.
Selected Federal statutes and regulations regarding the privacy of educational records are presented below. Other federal statutes and regulations may be relevant to specific inquires in this area. Research these materials using the resources featured here, or consult a Reference Librarian for further assistance.
State laws relevant to education and privacy will vary; Pennsylvania law is featured below. Resources for researching the law of other states are available in the Law Library and by using the databases presented here. Consult a Reference Librarian for assistance in researching the laws of the several states.
Pennsylvania Case Law: Pennsylvania state court opinions are published in various official and unofficial court reporters, and are available online on Westlaw, Lexis Advance, and Bloomberg Law. Opinions may also be available on the relevant court’s website:
Pennsylvania Case Opinion Databases:
Pennsylvania Statutes and Regulations: Pennsylvania statutes and administrative rules have numerous provisions dealing with education law and with privacy issues. Below are some selected provisions; others can be found through further research using the resources featured in this Guide:
The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes Annotated (Reserve: KFP30 1930 .A44).
Pennsylvania Statutes: Title 24. Education
Public School Code of 1949 24 P.S. §§ 1-101-27-2702
Pennsylvania Regulations (Pennsylvania Code): The Pennsylvania Code is Pennsylvania's official publication of rules and regulations governing the operation's of state agencies.
The Pennsylvania Bulletin is Pennsylvania's official weekly publication noting changes to state court rules, executive orders, and agency regulations and notices.
The following are a selection of Congressional hearings on issues of educational privacy and technology available in the Villanova Law Library collection. Consult a Reference Library for assistance with accessing and using this material.